Tree Topology

Tree Topology | Advantages And Disadvantages Of Tree Topology

Network topology is the representation of network arrangement that presents how different nodes are connected with one another through connecting links. Network topology acts as an important factor to choose what the media type should be used to cable a network. In fact, the topology plays a vital role in network operation as well as network performance. Network topology reduces functioning & maintenance cost. Networking concepts are better understood with network topology.  Tree topology is one of the most popular among five network topology. The article will present the different aspects of tree topology.

What is tree topology?

Tree topology is a good example of hybrid topology. It is a known as hierarchical topology. The hierarchy demands for a minimum of three levels. The topology establishes a natural child & parent hierarchy. This topology can be called as star-bus network topology too. How? In tree network topology, star networks are interconnected with each other with the help of bus network.

The topology where all the nodes (i.e. computer) are connected like branches of a tree is termed as tree. In this topology, there is a root node. Only one connection exists between two connected nodes. Other nodes are arranged on different levels like secondary & tertiary nodes. One level of hierarchy has point to point connection with adjacent nodes with the level below it. The primary nodes & secondary nodes have point to point connection. And the secondary & tertiary nodes are connected with point to point connection.

The tree topology houses multiple star topology. In a single star topology, single nodes are connected to a central node. Multiple stars include a sequence of tertiary nodes bound to two or even more secondary nodes, attached with the main (primary) trunk node of tree. In terms of star-bus topology, multiple nodes are connected through one edge ways connection.

Tree topology diagram

Figure: Tree Topology

Tree Topology diagram
Tree Topology diagram

The root node (in level one) has two child; they are referred as parent node in level two. The parent node extends towards leaf nodes in next level of hierarchy.

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Bus Topology advantages and disadvantages

Star Topology advantages and disadvantages

Ring Topology advantages and disadvantages

Mesh Topology advantages and disadvantages

Characteristics features of tree topology:

  • The topology appears as a tree like structure ( with number of branches)
  • To establish connection between the central & different level hierarchy, the topology is preferably used.
  • The central HUB plays the role of data center or network control.
  • The HUB ensures communication between the groups.
  • Mains cord or Backbone participates as network linkage.
advantages and disadvantages of Tree Topology
advantages and disadvantages of Tree Topology

Advantages of Tree topology

there are varieties of advantages of using the topology. A number of them are,

  • Tree topology provides a hierarchical as well as central data arrangement.
  • The topology is convenient to use as it provides simple & trouble-free data arrangement.
  • Individual segments demand for point to point wiring
  • Development of the topology is quite easy.
  • The inactivation of one client doesn’t affect the other client.
  • Error & fault detection in tree topology is easy.
  • Diversified choice of hardware & software vendors to support the topology.
  • A callable topology. Leaf nodes can hold more nodes.
  • Mushrooming of the node is simple.
  • Easy maintenance.

Disadvantages of Tree topology

Tree topology is not 100% faultless..It has some limitations too. Some demerits/disadvantages of using tree topology are,

  • Length of a segment is limited & the limit depends on the type of cabling.
  • For presence of large number of nodes, network performance of tree topology is bit slowly.
  • If the computer in first level (highest level) is erroneous, next level computer will also go under problems.
  • Requires large number of cables; the establishment cost increases as well.
  • As the data needs to travel through the central cable, dense network traffic creates.
  • Backbone appears as the failure point of the entire segment.
  • Treatment of the topology is pretty complex.

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Different applications of tree topology

There are varieties of application of tree topology like computer networking, computer programming, designing of binary tree, Cable TV Network etc.

Tree topology in computer programming

To structure different data, tree topology is used. In fact a computer program itself utilizes tree topology. For example the high-level programming language Lisp has an innate tree structure.

Representation of a program through tree topology is really preferred as the topology visualizes how all data & operations establish connection. Strategies of genetic programming may develop new computer programs by swapping branches of current programs that are arranged as trees.

Database systems like PostgreSQL, MySQL, & Redis & file systems like NTFS, HFS+, and Ext4 widely use tree topology.

Tree topology in binary trees design

Binary tree is the special kind of tree where each parent (node) has maximum two children. The children are labeled as left & right child. Searching & sorting operation of large amount of data demands for binary tree use.

Common cable to use in tree topology

  • Coaxial
  • Twisted
  • Fiber

Both coaxial & twisted pair cable use copper insulation wiring. Twisted pair cable is less expensive. It provides less bandwidth than coaxial cable.

Fiber optic cables are usually made with thin glass tube. They are very delicate for such structure. Such cable transmits data at a faster rate than both coaxial & twisted pair cable. Installation of fiber optic cable is quite expensive.

Protocol used in tree topology


Ethernet is the conventional technology to connect the communicating device in LAN or WAN. Ethernet enables the communication via a protocol. Ethernet is cost effective protocol. Data transfer quality of Ethernet is pretty good. This protocol is usually resistant to noise. Speed & reliability of Ethernet is quite praiseworthy.

Tree topology performs remarkable with large networks. Expansion & contraction of tree network is really flexible. So in terms of future expansion of network, tree is a good choice with no doubt.

Final Verdict

Tree topology is noticeably important to establish communication between two networks. it’s covers up the limitation of star topology. Star topology exhibits two level of hierarchy whereas tree topology exhibits three level of hierarchy.

The requirement of a network structure to have a root node, intermediate parent node & leaf node is fulfilled using tree topology. Tree topology is always a good choice in networking.

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