Present Perfect tense is used when the action completed at some point in the past
It expresses the occurrence of an action in the past not very extended time ago i.e. the action just completed.
Definition: The action or event just completed but its results remain non-publication, then it is known as Present Perfect Tense. That means the actions occurred in the past before now not long time ago or continue to the present or started in the past but finished just.
For Example, She has gone to School.
He has eaten rice.
You have done the work.
|Structure: Subject + Have/ has +Past participle form of verb + object.|
Examples of Present Perfect Tense
I have lost my pen.
He has seen this picture.
She has seen him today.
He has started a new work.
She has finished her study.
You have visited in England.
I have met him.
He has worked as a teacher.
|Negative||Structure: Subject + have/ has not + past participle of main verb + extension.||Example: He has not gone his college.They have not finished their work.He has not been tried to get well in the exam.She has not cleaned her room properly.|
|nterrogative||Structure: have/ has + subject + past participle of main verb + extension.||Example: Has he gone to his college?Has she cleaned her room?Have I watched TV?Has he prepared himself for the exam?|
Use of Present Perfect Tense
To understand the result of the incident of the past still remains present, in this case, we use the present perfect tense.
For example, Markony has done a lot for our country.
The work has done for a long time and the time is still continuing, then, in this case, we use this tense.
For example, He has lived in Dhaka for ten years.
The sentence will present perfect tense if there exists the Adverb such as never, ever, already, just now, yet, just, lately, recently, etc. and Adverbial Phrase such as: up to now, up to the present, so far, etc.
For example, He has already written the book.
So far they have done well.
To understand the incomplete period like this morning, this afternoon, this evening, today, this year, this week, this month, this century, etc.
For example, The baby has rung me four times this morning. Here the morning means the time till 1 pm. After 1 pm it means it competed the period, then the sentence will past indefinite/ simple.
He has seen me this afternoon. (5. p.m.)
But at 6 p.m. It will: he saw me this afternoon.
Uses of for and since in present perfect tense
Use of for: To understand the period of time (extending into the present)
e.g., they lived in Kolkata for five years. (And still, live there)
But if there exists be, live, wait after for then for will be excluded.
Use of since: since sitting before the point of time.
e.g., she has been ill since Friday.
N.B.: Difference between last and the last: Last sitting to indicate the exact time and the last sitting to indicate the widespread time.
For example, he has been there since last week.
I have been here for the last week.
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