The atom combines of nucleus and electron. Moreover, the nucleus is a central part of an atom consisting of proton and neutron and the electron rotates around the nucleus in a certain orbit. Generally, the proton is a sub atom that lies on the nucleus of an atom and it indicates the mass number of an element and the charge of the proton is positive. Further, the periodic table is made up on the basis of an atomic number of an element.
The history of proton
The word proton is a Greek word and it means the first. At first, the scientist William Prout has found the theory of the existence of proton. Later on, the great scientist Ernest Rutherford has used the term proton in order to describe the nucleus of the hydrogen.
Charge of electron and proton
The charge of a proton is electrically positive and the charge of electron is electrically negative. On the other nucleus has no charge and it is neutral in nature.
The plus sign before a numeric number of the charge indicates the positive charge of a certain element that is proton and the negative sign before a charge indicates the electric charge of an element that moves around the orbit.
The symbol p depicts the mass of protons and the symbol p+ depicts charge of proton of an element. The symbol e depicts the electron and
Charge of proton in coulombs
The Coulomb is the Standard International Unit uses for measuring the electric charge and the symbol of a coulomb is C. The electric charge of Proton is +1.602176×10-19 C and the magnitude of the electric charge of the proton is a positive number so a plus sign is put before the numerical value of the charge. The relative charge of the proton is +1. On the other hand, the charge of the electron is -1.602176×10-19 C and the relative charge of the electron is -1.
The number of proton in an element
The number of protons usually remains constant in and it determines the atomic number of the element. But in case of the isotope, the element can show different neutron number and the proton number remains the same along with the mass number but atomic mass changes.
The element hydrogen has one proton. But in the isotopes in hydrogen, it shows the same proton number but the different number of the neutron. The word isotope means when the same element shows the different number of atoms. The hydrogen has three isotopes and the isotopes element has one proton but the number of neutrons is 0, 1 and 2 in the isotopes. The isotopes of hydrogen are as follow:
Again if the charge of the proton is added to the atom of hydrogen then it will become helium as it contains two charges of the proton.
The relative mass of Proton
The mass of the proton is 1.67 x 10-27 kilograms. On the other, the mass of Proton is 1.007276 Amu. But the relative mass of the proton is 1 and the mass of hydrogen is 1.
The relative mass has made from the mass of hydrogen and it is considered as the standard mass. It is always positive. Before the numeric value, a plus sign is assigned in order to represent the positive charge. Moreover, the symbol of positive charge is +p.
Properties of proton
The properties of the proton are as follow:
- The proton and electron attract each other as a proton is electrically positive and the electron is electrically negatively
- As proton is electrically positive so two protons of the same charge will repel each other.
- The proton indicates the atomic number of an element.
- The protons are stable particles and it does on decay on the other particle.
- The proton combines three smaller particles known as the quarks and it contains two up quarks and one down quark.
Process of calculating the charge of a proton
The atomic number of every element is the number of protons. Even the number of the electron can be found out from the mass number at the steady level.
When any element donates or gains an electron at that time it is not possible to count the number of the electron from the atomic number. The atomic number of Na means sodium is 11 so the number of Proton is 11 and the mass number is 23. So the number of proton in the nucleus is equal to the atomic number of an element.
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