An electron is a subatomic unit or elementary particle that lies outside the nucleus of an atom. Moreover, the electron moves in an orbit around the nucleus of an atom. Generally, the charge of an electron is negative. The symbol of an electron is e.
The static electricity is the result of the movement electron from one body to another and the electric current is the result of the flow of the electric charge that is the electron. The electron is very small in the size.
The fluctuation of electron
In the stable condition in an atom of an element, the numbers of proton and electron remain equal all the time. The number of protons always remain the same but the number of electron changes at the time the unstable condition of an element. The number of the electron will be more in an element that gains the electron.
On the other hand, the number of electrons will be less in the element that donates the electron. The positively charged ion donates Electron and it is basically a metal because metal donates an electron.
The negatively charged particles are nonmetal basically because it accepts an electron from metal in the ionic bond formation.
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Coulombs to electrons in Charge
The Coulomb considers as the Standard International Unit for depicting the electric charge. The symbol of a coulomb is C. The charge of electron is -1.602176×10-19 C. The numerical value of the charge contains a negative sign in order to indicate the electrically negative charge. The relative charge of the electron is -1.
Electron and magnetic field
The charge of electron generates own electric field. Again the electron remains in motion all the time and it generates the magnetic field also.
Mass of electron
The mass of an electron is 9.109389 × 10-28 gm or 9.109389 ×10 -31 kg. The relative mass of the electron is 0.00055. On the other hand, the mass of electron is 1/1836 times of the mass of proton.
So the electron does not contribute much in the total mass of the atom. By using the equation Q = (m×g)/ E the mass of electron can be calculated.
Q= the charge of Electron
E= the electric field
m = the mass of droplet
g = the gravity
By using Millikan oil drop experiment the magnitude of electron charge comes out that will help to find the mass of electron. The experiment finds that all drop has a charge that is the multiple of 1.602176×10-19 C. The mass of electron will result in the e/m ratio and the symbol e means to charge and m means mass.
The magnitude of electron charge is 1.602176×10-19 C. The mass of electron will be m = (charge/ratio) = 9.109389 × 10-28 gm or 9.109389 ×10 -31 kg
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Properties of electron
Every particle has some own characteristics. With these properties or characteristics, the particle or element can easily find out.
The electron is an elementary particle and it has some features too that makes the particles quite different from the others. The properties of electron are as follow:
- The charge of electron is negative
- The negatively charged electron attracts a positive charge such as the proton.
- The electrons in the atom of an element move in the orbital path around the nucleus
- In the stable condition, the number of proton and electron in an element always remain same. But in case of unstable condition the number of electrons changes due to the addition or elimination of electron.
- In the ionic bond, the metal donates electron and the nonmetal gains the electron in order to form the ionic compound.
- In the covalent bond, the element shares the electron of the last shell so that it can fill the condition of octet rule along with the formation of the covalent bond.
- The electron considers as the elementary particles because they are not made up of smaller particles. Electron belongs to the lepton family.
- The electron is quite identical to each other because no intrinsic physical property is found to distinguish electron.
Charge of an electron
The electron belongs to the lepton family. The lepton is a fundamental particle. Moreover, the electron cannot be broken into smaller particle further. All the leptons have the electric magnitude of -1 and 0. The charge of electron is negative and the symbol of electrical charge is e–.
The electron has a charge of -1 that is opposite of +1 of the charge of proton. The negatively charged particle has more electrons than the number of proton in an element. On the other hand, the positively charged particles have the number of proton than the number of the electron in the element.
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The shell of electron
In an atom, the electrons remain in the shell. Every certain shell has the minimum and maximum capacity to hold the electrons in the atom of element and the shell has one or more electronic subshell or sublevel.
The electronic shells make the electronic configuration of an atom. The number of electrons remains in the shell is 2n2. The magnitude of n in the first shell is 1.
So the maximum number of electrons in the first shell will be (2×12) =2 electrons. For the second shell, the maximum number of electrons is (2×22) = (2×4) =8 electrons and it will also show the number of electron in the order of other shells too by using the 2n2.
The process of calculating the charge of an electron
The compound NaCl means sodium chloride and forms by the means of an ionic compound. It means the element Na donates one electron to the nonmetal chlorine.
At that time the sodium Na element becomes Na+ it means that the Na becomes positively charged ion by donating one electron in order to form both the ionic bond and octet rule.
From Na+ the total electrons can be calculated
The atomic number of sodium is 11. The atomic number is equal to the number of protons. So the number of protons is 11
In a normal condition, the number of proton and electron remains equal in an atom in order to make the atom neutral. But in the charged condition the number of electrons changes. The + plus in Na+ indicates it donates one electron.
The number of electron in Na+ is (11-1) = 10 electrons in the charged condition.
In case of donating electron by positively charged ion particle,
The number of electron = the number of protons – The number of donated electron
In case of gaining electron by negatively charged ion particle,
The number of electron= the number of proton + the number of gained electron.
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